Welcome to Our Wiki Presentation

Hello Everyone, we would like to officially welcome you to our Wiki Presentation, where we will provide you with information on the issues of horizontal violence within the nursing profession and possible solutions to creating a safer and healthier work environment. Our presentation will include:

      • Video
      • What is horizontal violence?
      • Examples of violence
      • Causes of horizontal violence
      • Impact violence has on healthcare
      • Statistics/Important findings
      • Solutions and recommendations
      • What YOU can do
      • Theory: approaching lateral and horizontal violence
      • Summary of Scholarly References
      • Conclusion
      • Critical Questions

Group Members: Marina Azariev, Andrea Darkwah, Michelle Hope Gilpo, James Langille, Kenisha Moodie, Belinda Reid-Thomas

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Posted by on July 6, 2011 in Wiki Presentation



This YouTube presentation on horizontal violence was created by HC Healthcare Marketplace. for more information please visit their site @

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Posted by on July 5, 2011 in Wiki Presentation


What is Horizontal Violence?

Horizontal violence is a term that is used to describe bullying and aggression involving an inter-group conflict (Curtis, Bowen & Reid, 2007).

Lateral violence is a term that is used interchangeably with horizontal violence, which describes the form of behaviour that is usually displayed by senior nurses (Crabbs & Smith, 2011).

According to Longo (2007), it is an act of subtle or overt aggression perpetrated by one colleague toward another colleague, and is the concept underpinning nurses’ descriptions of “eating their young”.

CNO (2009) states that violence or abuse in the workplace constitutes as any form of inappropriate behavior, which includes; but are not limited to harassment, bullying, isolation and/or pushing.  Nurses among all other healthcare providers, experience the most form of abuse, many of which go unreported due to fear of retaliation or being labelled a whistle-blower (RNAO, 2008).


Examples of Violence

RNAO (2009) defines workplace violence as an incident of aggression that is physical, sexual, verbal, emotional or psychological that occurs when nurses are abused, threatened or assaulted in circumstances related to their work.”

Some examples of horizontal and lateral abuse that student nurses, newly graduated nurses and experienced nurses may encounter within their work environment include but are not limited to:

    • Non-verbal innuendo (raising of eyebrows, face-making)
    • Verbal affront (covert or overt, snide remarks, lack of openness, abrupt
    • Undermining activities (turning away, not being available)
    • Withholding information (about practice or patient)
    • Sabotage (deliberately setting up a negative situation)
    • Infighting (bickering with peers)
    • Scapegoating (attributing all that goes wrong to one individual)
    • Backstabbing (complaining to others about an individual and not speaking
      directly to that individual)
    • Failure to respect privacy
    • Broken confidences

(Crabb & Smith 2011)

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Posted by on July 4, 2011 in Wiki Presentation


Understanding Horizontal Violence

The issue of violence and abuse in the workplace correlates to inadequate staffing levels and
supervision, shift work, long wait periods in emergency, and decrease in client privacy, all in which contributes to stress, resulting in some form of abuse (CNA, 2005).  However, recent studies have also indicated that violence occurs according to the nurse’s gender, their level of experience, nurse-physician relationships and a lack of co-worker and supervisor support (Shields & Wilkins, 2009).

Other reasons given for the acts of LHV mainly show an insertion of dominance within a workplace. Some believe that due to the competitiveness of the political aspects within the health care profession much of the LHV is driven by personality traits, demographic characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity thus underlying envy. These reasons are greatly propitiated by societal aspects of hierarchy such as organizational factors related to the distribution of power bases, downsizing, restructuring, deficit in organizational designs, and decreased job autonomy. An example of how an organizational design creates barriers towards power struggles amongst employees is as follows; in times of organizational change one may feel the need to show a dominant stance above their colleagues by using bullying to demean traits of certain individuals thus trying to outperform and make their efforts seen above others. Factors are driven by a facilities push for higher work loads, decreasing fiscal resources, and reducing the need for individual job promotions. This is the connections between organizational politics and aspects of LHV (Katrinli, Atabay, Gunay, & Cangarli, 2010)

Another underlying cause to horizontal violence occurs when an oppressed group of individuals feels alienated and removed from their autonomy, as well as lacking in control over their working conditions.  This begins a cycle of low self-esteem and feeling powerless (DeMarco & Roberts, 2003).  Research has also shown that oppression within nursing exists when a powerful and dominant group controls and exploits a less influential group (Roberts, DeMarco & Griffin, 2009).

According to Crabbs & Smith (2011), other possible reasons include “1) work practices which may prompt the bullying of others, such as when a nurse fails to complete his or her work during the assigned shift and leave tasks for the oncoming nurse; 2) low self-esteem which leads to poor anger management, with the result of acting out against others; 3) new nurses serving as “easy targets” for more aggressive seasoned nurses; over time, the new nurse may normalize the negative behavior and, in turn, begin bullying others; and 4) the perceived entitlement of nurse managers or other nurse leaders which allows them to translate their power into the abuse of others” (pg. 1).

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Posted by on July 3, 2011 in Wiki Presentation


Impact of Violence on Healthcare

The issue of abuse and violence within healthcare facilities is perceived as a legal and ethical issue, due to the effect that it imposes on the health and safety of staff and the clients in which care is provided.  “In addition to the impact on victims, significant organizational costs of violence in the workplace include increased costs for sick time and health care plans, increased absenteeism, lower productivity, stress-related illness, high turnover, decreased capacity to offer effective nursing care, increased costs for recruitment and retention, and diminished sense of professional competence with potential to compromise patient/client health outcomes” (RNAO, 2009).

 According to Woelfle & McCaffrey (2007), horizontal violence and hostility drains nurses of energy and undermines the institution’s attempts to create a satisfied nursing workforce.

When weighing psychological components into how a nurse performs within a clinical setting there are many factor that relate to job satisfaction and nursing burnout. Positive attitudes and relations go a long way within this profession; much of nursing burnout relates to physical, emotional and psychological factors that promote high levels of stress prolonged over time that are emotionally unbearable. Settings involving high stress and low recognition is damaging to a nurses sense of accomplishment and competence (Kanste, Miettunen, & Kyngas, 2006).

Looking at the impacts of lateral/horizontal violence (LHV) amongst healthcare professionals, intermediate or advanced in their practice is astonishing.  LHV is a form of psychological harassment that demeans an equal professional due to differences in perspectives and knowledge. Although research has proven that the nurse who reports harassment the most is the nurse who suffers the greatest burnout rates, consequences of LHV goes deeper than just psychological issues related to job satisfaction. This form of harassment impairs job performance thus increases the rate of medical errors impacting client care.

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Posted by on July 2, 2011 in Wiki Presentation


Statistics and other findings

International Council of Nurses [ICN] (2004), states as many as 72 percent of nurses do not feel safe from assault at work. Also, a study that collected data from 43,000 nurses in five countries found that Canadian nurses reported high rates of emotional abuse, as well as threats of an actual assault (Aiken et al. 2001).

In 2005, the National Survey of Health and Nurses reported how nurses felt about the support and respect from co-workers and supervisors.

  • 44% female nurses and 50% male nurses claimed they were exposed to hostility or conflict from the people they worked with, compared to 30% of other employed workers in general — almost half of all workers in an institution or practice setting experience varying measures of hostility and conflict.
  • 16% of nurses reported low respect from supervisors or poor working relations with

In a study by Curtis, Bowen & Reid (2007), over half of the nursing students reported that they experienced or witnessed horizontal violence during their clinical placements and that it would influence their future employment choices. The students reported they had no credibility whatsoever, and that they felt humiliated, powerless and disrespected in light of the horizontal violence they had been experiencing at clinical.

Thomas & Burk (2009), revealed that many nursing students throughout their clinical rotations felt unwanted and ignored, that their assessments were distrusted and disbelieved, and that they were unfairly blamed and publicly humiliated.

In addition, a study by Finnie (2009) found that nurses who are victims of horizontal violence may leave their institutions and the nursing profession when conflict and unpleasantness among colleagues becomes unbearable.

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Posted by on July 1, 2011 in Wiki Presentation


Approaching Lateral and Horizontal Violence: Theory

Oppressive behaviour and attitudes of nurses have been so pervasive that it often goes undetected.  Without having addressed the systemic issues, the effects of LV and HV have begun to erode the nursing environment, affecting everyone (directly or indirectly).  The discipline of nursing was created by forging new ways of knowing and being by challenging the traditional scientific method. Throughout history nurses have fought for the ability to legitimize our role in the health profession, where dominant groups (other health professions) held positions of power.

Social Theory

Social theorist and philosopher Michel Foucault looked at the individual’s outlook and existence, in relation to the effects of power and knowledge within a society.  Foucault held the belief that power is not controlled but exercised within relationships between people, which can be seen through the resistance of power (King-Jones, 2011).  Foucault theory illustrates how nurse pioneers challenged the traditional scientific method when they exercised their own power to ‘resist’ the roles in health care and the concept of health, as defined by those in positions of power.

The underpinning of Lateral and Horizontal Violence in nursing has been embedded into the social control of the hierarchy of health care.  The negative social behaviour by a dominant group has led to internalized feelings of hopelessness, powerlessness amongst many nurses (King-Jones, 2011).  Often viewed as subordinates, nurses may have felt of unappreciated, disrespect.  As a result, many nurses have assimilated to the social norms of the dominant group and perpetuated this negative behaviour on each other (Woelfle & McCaffrey, 2007).

Nursing Theory

Nursing theorist Rosemarie Rizzo Parse’s Leading-Following Model is grounded in the Human-becoming theory as it reflects the ever-changing, unpredictable situations within the human-universe and focuses on the inherent power within a person (Parse, 2004).  Parse defines power as “the force emanating from the core of a person who commands the respect of others without the authority or responsibility of a position” (Parse, 2004, p.101). Therefore, it can be said that power in a position is not the same as having power, and nurses seeking change within the environment of the health care can be emerging leaders who seek change.

 Human-becoming Leading-Following Model:

The Leading-Following Model focuses on ways of being that honour human dignity and freedom through co-created relationships that seek to enhance respect for all persons involved.  Three essential processes of leading are:

 o    Commitment to a vision – may reflect a specific mission created through the passion of something that is valued, taking the courage to see its beauty come into view (Parse 2008).

 o    Willingness to risk – “involves advancing on the edge when the way is not precisely clear” (Doucet & Maillard Struby, 2009, p.335).

 o    Reverence for others – cocreated between those present through “honouring the uniqueness of   individuals by not expecting each person to contribute to the vision in exactly the same way” (Parse, 1997, p.109). 

In the pursuit of excellence within the nursing profession, new nurse graduates have a unique position viewed through the human-becoming lens to assume power through the resistance of a stagnant environment where assumptions and dominant social behaviours exist.  Woven between the praxis and theory of nursing are the principles, values and mission that have shaped and will continue to shape the freedom in which our profession grows.


Recommendations and Solutions

Despite the low number of reports, violence in the workplace among healthcare professionals has become an increasingly common theme resulting in lack of job satisfaction, burnout, depression, and/or premature resignation.  Within every work environment, some form of violence will occur, whether it is verbal, physical, or emotional abuse, we have all encountered it in one way or another.  Some have fallen victim to abuse, while others may have been perpetrators; however, the question is, how can one recognize, prevent and manage the violence they experience in their workplace in order to maintain a safe and healthy work environment for themselves and others? (RNAO, 2009).

Nursing organizations such as RNAO, CNA, CFNU, and ONA all support the initiation and implementation of zero tolerance policies for nurses.  RNAO specifically includes nursing students.

Registered Nurses Association of Ontario (RNAO)

SOCIETAL: Legislation for whistle-blowing protection to increase comfort in incidence reporting


  • Adoption and implementation of ‘zero-tolerance to violence’ policy
  • Means to disseminate policy information to all staff, volunteers, clients, family
    members and visitors
  • An inclusive and respectful practice environment where there is collaboration among team members
  • A workplace violence committee, which includes nurses, to develop strategies for controlling and reporting violent behaviour
  • Violence prevention/management education and training programs for all staff, including discussion about accountability and respect for others
  • A system to identify and flag situations that could create a potential for violence
  • Immediate response plans
  • Collaborative agreements with local law enforcement agencies for immediate response in the event of an actual or potentially violent situation
  • A Critical Incident Debriefing Program that includes peer support
  • Employee Assistance Programs (EAP), counselling, security and other support staff as required.
  • Support and encouragement for nurses to report incidents of workplace violence and to prosecute individuals who commit violent acts.
  • A mechanism to track and review incidents or potential incidents of violence.
  • Use of communication devices and panic buttons in case there is an incidence of violence


  • Course content that incorporates best practice for violence prevention and conflict resolution
    in all nursing, medical school and other health-care professionals’ educational curricula.  This should include communication strategies that promote respect and understanding for each discipline’s similarities and differences.


  • Demonstrate strong, positive behaviours which are acceptable and supportive while guiding novice nurses through praxis
  • Provide nursing students and novice nurses greater opportunities to become actively involved in debriefing sessions to vent frustrations, effects of unfair treatment and negativity they are exposed to.
  • Provide students and novice nurses with manageable workloads that are conducive to capabilities and supportive towards their learning process as they transition into RN position – also allow for adjustments to workloads to promote success of new nurses (Weinland, 2010)


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Posted by on June 30, 2011 in Wiki Presentation


What can YOU do?

Abuse occurs among every level of healthcare professionals, including clients and their families and it is imperative that nurses as well as nursing students are able to recognize signs of abuse and the appropriate steps to take in order to prevent it from escalating.

  • Be familiar with your rights and responsibilities under the policy and the Ontario Human Rights Code – See section 5,Training and Education Resources
  • Do not engage in behaviour that would constitute as discrimination or harassment as per policy
  • Raise concerns as soon as possible if you have been discriminated against or harassed – refer to the Human Rights Complaint Procedures for Employees – resolution options
  • Document details of harassment and/or discrimination that are experienced or witnessed
  • Co-operate in interventions and investigations to resolve human rights and harassment issues
  • Maintain confidentiality related to human rights investigations
  • Employees are strongly encouraged to report incidents of harassment, discrimination or retaliation that they witness

(Crabbs & Smith, 2011)

All individuals have the responsibility to respect the rights of others and not discriminate
based on disability, race, ethnicity, sex, sexual orientation, or profession (RNAO, 2008).

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Posted by on June 29, 2011 in Wiki Presentation


Summary of Scholarly References

Doucet, T.J. & Maillard Struby, F. (2009). The Humanbecoming Leading Following Model in Practice. Nursing Science Quarterly, 22 (4), 333-338.

 The authors examine the nursing theory human-becoming model, Leading Following through six nursing students at a community nursing center in Geneva, Switzerland. This qualitative research looks at the evidence of theory, beliefs and values of nursing practiced within our profession. Processes of Parses’ model is identified through five lived experiences through nurse-person, nurse-nurse, nurse-group situations. The authors acknowledge the value of each human being is key, however suggested that more exploration of the effects of shifting patterns, in pursuit of excellence is needed.

 King-Jones, M. (2005). Horizontal Violence and the Socialization of New Nurses. Creative Nursing, 12 (2), 80-86.

 The framework of social theorist Michael Foucault are used to examine the psychological implications of oppressive behaviours in horizontal violence in nursing. King-Jones, looks at several studies where new nurses expressed high levels of stress, emotional neglect, abusive language and psychological damage. The power that other nurses (preceptors, professors, unit nurses) exercised over students left them feeling powerless.  As a result, many students considered leaving the profession or assimilating to social norm of the nursing environment. The author emphasizes the need to take action (ie. mentoring, nurturing) to protect the profession and its new members.

Leiper, J. (2005). Nurse against nurse: how to stop horizontal violence. Nursing 2005. 35(3), 44-47.

 The article highlights rising issues within the nursing environment which may attribute to horizontal violence and steps individuals and organizations can take to respond. Five theories have been linked to the active and passive aggressive behaviour, while transformational leadership is suggested within institutes to identify, prevent them. Finally, the author gives guidelines on how individuals facing abuse in the workplace, can actively stop the cycle.  

Parse, R. R. (2008).The Humanbecoming Leading-Following Model. Nursing Science Quarterly, 21 (4), 369-375.

Parse uses her Humanbecoming theory to set a framework unique to a nursing perspective on leadership. The Leading-Following Model, describes 6 processes of leading through the principles, concepts and paradoxes of a nursing theory. Accepting the always changing humanuniverse, respecting the unique perspectives of individuals displays ways in which power within is honoured. The author shows how unfolding rhythmic patterns through relating (enabling-limiting of connecting-separating) can provide new insight to how healthcare institutes and colleagues can share in a single mission and vision.

Weinand, M.R. (2010). Horizontal violence in nursing: history, impact and solution. Horizontal Violence in Nursing. 23-26.

 The article looks at the various theories and implication of horizontal violence throughout history to today. With emphasize placed on nurses in leadership positions (managers, educators, preceptors) the author states the importance of training and education. Managers are encouraged to develop “soft skills” and eliminate the “shame and blame” culture within health care. Strong mentors who emulated positive and supportive behaviour are needed for new nurses to develop. The current facts of nursing shortage, cannot afford to build opportunities for success with new and novice nurses, through supportive, caring work environments.

Woelfe, C.Y. & McCaffrey, R. (2007). Nurse on Nurse. Nursing Forum, 42 (3), 123-131. 

Woelfe and McCaffrey examine five research studies to identify if horizontal violence (HV) exists in the workplace and its effects on patient care and psychological impact on nurses (physical and mental). One exploratory research provided possible ways of confronting HV through, cognitive behaviour techniques. After being educated, through role-play and learning appropriate responses to behaviour first year nurses felt empowered to confront situations within their environment and were able to influence change.


Final Thoughts

When violence occurs in the workplace, it is a matter of individual(s) seeking to have power/or control over another. It is a form of attacking or mistreating others in order for that individual(s) to feel self-gratification, however in order to prevent and manage violence, nurses need to stand up and report the abuse once they have witnessed or encountered it.  This in return will remove the stigma that has been placed on the nursing profession, thus allowing for recruitment and retention of valuable nurses, therefore, decreasing the high turn over rate of nurses seeking employment elsewhere.

New nurses can affirm their own passion for nursing and empower other nurses to envision a professional work environment that reflects optimal health and wellness for all [nurses].  Nurses can take a risk by abandoning the current social norms through leading by example, joining nursing committees, advocating for change, acknowledging inequitable practices and empowering others to speak out against horizontal violence.  Pursuit of excellence by nurses is propelled forward without knowing all things, but having the ability to see beyond the present. Trusting the process while unfolding (engaging-not-engaging with others; enabling-limiting; connecting-separating) rhythms bring meaning and clarity to those involved.  The emergence of change will occur through accepting others unique contribution, respect for human dignity.  The freedom in which innovative ways are promoted not oppressed, will help move our profession towards infinite possibilities.

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Posted by on June 27, 2011 in Final Thoughts


Critical Questions

As new graduates start to enter the nursing profession, there are many obstacles that challenge the effectiveness of how a new nurse performs within a clinical setting. Beginning with the clinical educational setting students start to develop perspectives associated to their relationships with clinical staff, preceptors, patients, and peers. Confidence relating to the student’s performance rely on the interaction between the clinical participants over all shaping perspectives and attitudes amongst nurses. Positive work environments and attitudes also instill a better educational opportunity affecting the future nurse’s confidence related to competence with their skills and knowledge (Koontz, Mallory, Burns & Chapman, 2010).

The nursing practice provides us the opportunity to engage with others based on our knowledge, learning and unique perspective. We encourage you to share in bringing critical awareness and new understanding to the issues surrounding Horizontal Violence through the following reflective questions listed below:

1) Have you ever been a victim of horizontal violence (or lateral violence) in nursing and  how    did you deal with the situation?

2) In your opinion what are the greatest factors that contribute to this form of violence?

3) Do you feel nursing students are taught how to apply a caring framework for each other, as well as their patients? How would you like to see nurse educators (preceptors, professors, mentors etc) teach the skills necessary to promote a healthy work environment?

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Posted by on June 27, 2011 in Critical Questions


Works Cited

Aiken, L., Clarke, S., Sloane, D., Sochalski, J., Busse, R., Clarke, H. Et al. (2001). Nurses`reports on hospital care in five countries. Health Affairs, 20(3), 45-53.

Baltimore, J.J. (2006). Nurse collegiality: fact or fiction Nurse Management, 37(5), 50-51.

Bartholomew, K. (2006). Nurse to nurse hostility: Why nurses eat their young and each other. Marblehead, MA: HCPro.

Bowen, I., Curtis, J. & Reid, A. (2007). You have no credibility: nursing student’s experiences of horizontal violence. Nurse Education in Practice. 7, 156-163.

Canadian Nurses Association. (2005). Violence in the Workplace. Fact Sheet. Retrieved June 25, 2011, from

Canadian Nurses Association. (2008). Joint Position Statement; Workplace Violence. Ottawa: Author.

Canadian Nurses Association. (2010). Ethics, relationships and quality practice environments. Ethics in Practice for Registered Nurses. 1-16.

Cloverdale, H.J., McKenna, B.G., Poole, S.J. & Smith, N.A. (2003). Horizontal violence; experiences of registered nurses in their first year of practice. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 42 (1), 90-96.

Crabbs, N., & Smith, C. (2011). Healthy WORK ENVIRONMENTS. Med-Surg Matters, 20(2), 8-9.

DeMarco, R., &Roberts, S. (2003). Negative behaviours in nursing; looking in the mirror and beyond. American Journal of Nursing, 103(3), 113-116.

Doucet, T.J. & Maillard Struby, F. (2009). The Humanbecoming Leading Following Model in Practice. Nursing Science Quarterly, 22 (4), 333-338.

Dunn, H. (2003). Horizontal violence among nurses in the operating room. AORN Online, 78(6), 997-980, 984-988.

Finnie, N. (2009). Bullying forces nurses to quit. Kai Tiaki Nursing New Zealand, 15(9), 3-4.

International Council of Nurses. (2004). Violence: A world-wide epidemic ^Fact sheet¸. Geneva: Author.

Kanste, O., Miettunen, J. & Kyngas, H. (2006). Factor structure of the maslach burnout inventory among Finnish nursing staff. Nursing and Health Sciences, 8, 201-207.

Katrinli, A., Atabay, G., Gunay, G. & Cangarli, B.G. (2010). Nurses perceptions of individual and organizational political reasons for horizontal peer bullying. Nursing Ethics, 17(5), 614-627.

King-Jones, M. (2005). Horizontal Violence and the Socialization of New Nurses. Creative Nursing, 12 (2), 80-86.

Koontz, A., Mallory, J., Burns, J. & Chapman, S. (2010). Staff nurses and students: The good, bad, and the ugly. Medical/Surgical Nursing 19(4), 240-244.

Leiper, J. (2005). Nurse against nurse: how to stop horizontal violence. Nursing 2005. 35 (3), 44-47.

Longo, J. (2007). Horizontal violence among nursing students. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 21(3), 177-178.

Longo, J., & Sherman, R.O. (2007). Leveling horizontal violence. Nursing Management, 34-39.

MacIntosh, J. (2005). Experiences of workplace bullying in a rural area. Issues in Mental Health Nursing. 26, 893-910.

McKenna, B., Smith, N., Poole, S. & Coverdale, J. (2003). Horizontal violence: Experiences of registered nurses in their first year of practice. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 41(1), 90-96.

Parse, R.R. (1997). Leadership: The essentials. Nursing Science Quarterly, 10 (), 109.

Parse, R. R. (1998). Living the Art of Human Becoming. In R. R. Parse, The Human Becoming School of Thought: A Perspective for Nurses and Other Health Professionals (pp. 68-73). Sage Publications.

Parse, R.R. (2004). Power in position. Nursing Science Quarterly, 17 (101)

Parse, R. R. (2008).The Humanbecoming Leading-Following Model. Nursing Science Quarterly, 21 (4), 369-375.

Registered Nurses’ Association of Ontario. (2008). Position Statement: Violence Against Nurses. ‘Zero Tolerance’ for Violence against Nurses and Nursing Students. Toronto: Author.

Registered Nurses’ Association of Ontario. (2009). Preventing and Managing Workplace.  Toronto: Author.

Roberts, S.J., DeMarco, R., & Griffin, M. (2009). The effect of oppressed group behaviours on the culture of the nursing workplace: A review of the evidence and interventions for change. Journal of Nursing Management, 17(3), 288-293.

Rowell, P. (2005). Being a “target” at work: Or William Tell and how the apple felt. Journal of Nursing Administration, 35(9), 377.

Shields, M., & Wilkins, K. (2009). Factors related to on-the-job abuse of nurses by patients. Health Reports, 20(2), 7-19.

Thomas, S.P. (2003). “Horizontal hostility”: Nurses against themselves. How to resolve this threat of retention. American Journal of Nursing, 103(10), 87-88, 90-91.

Thomas, S.P., & Burk, R. (2009). Junior nursing students experiences of vertical violence during clinical rotations. Nursing Outlook, 57, 226-231.

Weinland, M.R. (2010). Horizontal violence in nursing: history, impact and solution. Horizontal Violence in Nursing. 23-26.

Woelfle, C.Y. & McCaffrey, R. (2007). Nurse on Nurse. Nursing Forum, 42 (3), 123-131.

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Posted by on June 25, 2011 in References


About Us

Thank you for visiting our Wiki Presentation, which was created as a class assignment by  6 collaborative and second-entry Bachelor of Science Nursing (BScN) students from York University in our final semester of study.

This page was created to provide awareness to nurses, student nurses and new graduates on the increasing cycle of horizontal violence that continues to plague the nursing profession as a whole.

From this page we hope that you were able to gain some form of knowledge and understanding to the perspective to this form of violence that occurs among nurses, and hope that you have been equipped with the tools needed in order to create a safe and healthier work environment for yourself and those around you.

Thank you for visiting our page come again soon! 

Wiki Group 20

Group Members: Marina Azariev, Andrea Darkwah, Michelle Gilpo,James Langille, Kenisha Moodie, Belinda Reid-Thomas

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Posted by on June 25, 2011 in Wiki Presentation